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EDITED BY *T. E. PAGE, c.u., Lirt.p. E. CAPPS, PH.pD., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, trrr.p. L. A. POST, m.a. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a.




Tue Epistrites or APOLLONIUS AND THE Treatise or Eusesivus







First printed, 1913 Reprinted, 1917, 1927, 1948



Tue Life of Apollonius of Tyana has only been once translated in its entirety into English, as long ago as the year 1811, by an Irish clergyman of the name of E. Berwick. It is to be hoped therefore that the present translation will be acceptable to the English reading public; for there is in it much that is very good reading, and it is lightly written. Of its author, Philostratus, we do not know much apart from his own works, from which we may gather that he was born in the island of Lemnos about the year 172 of our era, that he went to Athens as a young man to study rhetoric, and later on to Rome. Here he acquired a reputation as a sophist, and was drawn into what we may call the salon of the literary and philosophic Empress Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus. She put into his hands certain memoirs of Apollonius, the sage of Tyana, who had died in extreme old age nearly



100 years before during the reign of the Emperor Nerva, and she begged him to use them for the composition of a literary life of the sage in question. These memoirs had been composed by a disciple and companion of Apollonius named Damis, a native of the city of Nineveh, whose style, Philostratus says, like that of most Syrian Greeks, was heavy and wanting in polish. Besides these memoirs Philo- stratus used for his worka history of the career of Apollonius at Aegae, written by an admirer of the name of Maximus. He also used the many letters of Apollonius which were in circulation. His collection of these agreed partly, but not wholly, with those which are preserved to us and translated below. He tells us further that the Emperor Hadrian had a collection of these letters in his villa at Antium. Philostratus also possessed various treatises of Apollonius which have not come down to us. Beside making use of the written sources here enumerated Philostratus had travelled about, not only to Tyana, where there was a temple specially dedicated to the cult of Apollonius, but to other cities where the sage’s memory was held in honour, in order to collect such traditions of the sage as he found still current. From these sources then the work befure us was drawn, for although Philostratus


also knew the four books of a certain Moeragenes upon Apollonius, he tells us he paid no attention to them, because they displayed an ignorance of many things which concerned the sage. The learned Empress seems never to have lived to read the work of Philostratus, for it is not dedicated to her and can- not have been published before the year 217.

It has been argued that the work of Damis never . really existed, and that he was a mere nian of straw invented by Philostratus. This view was adopted as recently as the year 1910 by Professor Bigg, in his history of the origins of Christianity. But it seems unnecessarily sceptical. It is quite true that Philos- tratus puts into the mouth of the sage, on the authority of Damis, conversations and ideas which, as they recur in the Lives of the Sophists of Philostratus, can hardly have been reported by Damis. But because he resorted to this literary trick, it by no means follows that all the episodes which he reports on the authority of Damis are fictitious, for many of them possess great veri- similitude and can hardly have been invented as late as the year 217, when the life was completed and given to the literary world. It is rather to be supposed that Damis himself was not altogether a credible writer, but one who, like the so-called



aretalogi of that age, set himself to embellish the life of his master, to exaggerate his wisdom and his supernatural powers; if so, more than one of the striking stories told by Philostratus may have already stood in the pages of Damis.

However this be, the evident aim of Philostratus is to rehabilitate the reputation of Apollonius, and defend him from the charge of having been a charlatan or wizard addicted to evil magical practices. This accusation had been levelled against the sage during his life-time by a rival sophist Euphrates, and not long after his death by the author already mentioned, Moeragenes. Unfortunately the orations of Euphrates have perished, and we know little of the work of Moeragenes. Origen, the Christian father, in his work against Celsus, written about the year 240, informs us that he had read _ it, and that it attacked Apollonius as a magician addicted to sinister practices. It is certain also that the accusations of Euphrates were of similar tendency, and we only need to read a very few pages of this work of Philostratus to see that his chief intercst is to prove to the world that these accusations were ill-founded, and that Apollonius was a divinely-inspired sage and prophet, and a reformer along Pythagorean lines of the~ Pagan



religion. It is possible that some of the stories told by Byzantine writers of Apollonius, notably by John Tzetzes, derive from Moeragenes.

The story of the life of Apollonius as narrated by Philostratus is briefly as follows. He was born towards the beginning of the Christian era at ‘l'yana, in Cappadocia, and his birth was attended according to popular tradition with miracles and portents. At the age of sixteen he set himself to observe in the most rigid fashion the almost monastic rule ascribed to Pythagoras, renouncing wine, rejecting the married estate, refusing to eat any sort of flesh, and in particular condemning the sacrifice of animals to the gods, which in the ancient world furnished the occasion, at any rate for the poor people, of eating meat. For we must not forget that in antiquity hardly any meat was eaten which had not previously been consecrated by sacrifice to a god, and that consequently the priest was the butcher of a village and the butcher the priest. Like other votaries of the Neo-Pythagorean philosophy or discipline, Apollonius went without shoes or only wore shoes of bark, he allowed his hair to grow long, and never let a razor touch his chin, and he took care to wear on his person nothing but linen, for it was accounted by him, as by Brahmans, an impurity to allow any



dress made of the skin of dead animals to touch the person. Before long he set himself up asa reformer, and betaking himself to the town of Aegae, he took up his abode in the temple of Aesculapius, where he rapidly acquired such a reputation for sanctity that sick people flocked to him asking him to heal them. On attaining his majority, at the death of his father and mother, he gave up the greater part of his patrimony to his elder brother, and what was left to his poor relations. He then set himself to spend five years in complete silence, traversing, it would seem, Asia Minor, in all directions, but never opening his lips. The more than Trappist vow of silence which he thus enforced upon himself seems to have further enhanced his reputation for holiness, and his mere appearance on the scene was enough to hush the noise of warring factions in the cities of Cilicia and Pamphylia. If we may believe his biographer he professed to know all languages without ever having learned them, to know the inmost thoughts of men, to understand the language of birds and animals, and to have the power of pre- dicting the future. He also remembered his former incarnation, for he shared the Pythagorean belief of the migrations of human souls from body to body, both of animals and of human beings. He preached


a rigid asceticism, and condemned all dancing and other diversions of the kind ; he would carry no money on his person and recommended others to spend their money in the relief of the poorer classes. He visited Persia and India, where he consorted with the Brahmans ; he subsequently visited Egypt, and went up the Nile in order to acquaint him- self with those precursors of the monks of the Thebaid called in those days the Gymnosophists or naked philosophers. He visited the cataracts of the Nile, and returning to Alexandria held long conver- sations with Vespasian and Titus soon after the siege and capture of Jerusalem by the latter. He had a few years before, in the course of a visit to Rome, incurred the wrath of Nero, whose minister Tigellinus however was so intimidated by him as to set him at liberty. After the death of Titus he was again arrested, this time by the Emperor Domitian, as a fomenter of sedition, but was apparently acquitted. He died at an advanced age in the reign of Nerva, who befriended him; and according to popular tradition he ascended bodily to heaven, appearing after death to certain persons

who entertained doubts about a future life. Towards the end of the third century when the struggle between Christianity and decadent Paganism xi


had reached its last and bitterest stage, it occurred to some of the enemies of the new religion to set up Apollonius, to whom temples and shrines had been erected in various parts of Asia Minor, as a rival to the founder of Christianity. The many miracles which were recorded of Apollonius, and in particular his eminent power over evil spirits or demons, made him a formidable rival in the minds of Pagans to Jesus Christ. And a certain Hierocles, who was a provincial governor under the Emperor Diocletian, wrote a book to show that Apollonius had been as great a sage, as remarkable a worker of miracles, and as potent an exorcist as Jesus Christ. His work gave great offence to the missionaries of the Christian religion, and Eusebius the Christian historian wrote a treatise in answer, in which he alleges that Apollonius was a mere charlatan, and if a magician at all, then one of very inferior powers; he also argues that if he did achieve any remarkable results, it was thanks to the evil spirits with whom he was in league. Eusebius is careful, however, to point out that before Hierocles, no anti-Christian writer had thought of putting forward Apollonius as the rival and equal of Jesus of Nazareth. It is possible of course that Hierocles took his cue from the Emperor Alexander Severus (a.D, 205-235), who instead of setting up xi


images of the gods in his private shrine, established therein, as objects of his veneration, statues of Alexander the Great, Orpheus, Apollonius of Tyana, Abraham, and Christ. This story however in no way contradicts the statement of Eusebius, and it is a pity that this significant caution of the latter has been disregarded by Christian writers of the last three centuries, who have almost unanimously adopted a view that is utterly unwarrantable, namely, that Philostratus intended his life of Apollonius as a counterblast to that of the Christian gospel. The best scholars of the present generation are opposed to this view, for they realise that demoniac possession was a common feature in the ancient landscape, and that the exorcist driving demons out of afflicted human beings by use of threats and invocations of mysterious names was as familiar a figure in old Pagan society as he was in the early church.

We read that wherever Apollonius travelled, he visited the temples, and undertook to reform the cults which he there found in vogue. His reform seems to have consisted in this, that he denounced as derogatory to the gods the practice of sacrificing to them animal viclims and tried to persuade the priests to abandon it. In this respect he prepared the ground for Christianity and was working along xiii


the same lines as many of the Christian missionaries. In the third century Porphyry the philosopher and enemy of Christianity was as zealous in his con- demnation of blood-offerings, as Apollonius had been in the first. Unquestionably the neo-Pythagorean propaganda did much to discredit ancient paganism, and Apollonius and its other missionaries were all unwittingly working for that ideal of bloodless sacrifice which, after the destruction of the Jewish Temple, by an inexorable logic imposed itself on the Christian Church. P

It is well to conclude this all too brief notice of Apollonius with a passage cited by Eusebius! from his lost work concerning sacrifice. There is no good reason for doubting its authenticity, and it is an apt summary of his religious belief :—

“In no other manner, I believe, can one exhibit a fitting respect for the divine being, beyond any other men make sure of being singled out as an object of his favour and good-will, than by refusing to offer to God whom we termed First, who is One and separate from all, as subordinate to whom we must recognise all the rest, any victim at all; to Him we. must not kindle fire or make promise unto him of any sensible

é i‘ cea On the Preparation for the Gospel, Bk. iv.



object whatsoever. For He needs nothing even from beings higher than ourselves. Nor is there any plant or animal which earth sends up or nourishes, to which some pollution is not incident. We should make use in relation to him solely of the higher speech, I mean of that which issues not by the lips ; and from the noblest of beings we must ask for blessings by the noblest faculty we possess, and that faculty is intelligence, which needs no organ. On these principles then we ought not on any account to sacrifice victims to the mighty and supreme God.”

The text followed by the translator is that ot C. L. Kayser, issued by B. G. Teubner, at Leipzic in 1870.




Page Line 3. 68-9 7 30-31

20 6 31 20 33 33 35 25-26 36 43 16 49 ll »» 28-30" 50 18


For “‘ whether of animals or of sacrificial victims.’’

read ‘‘ and from the offering of animals in sacri- fice.”

For “in a season of intense drought” read “in a season when least rain falls’.

For yeyopévny”” read yevopevny””. For ‘“‘‘ Ha, such and such day!’” read ** Ha,’ naming a certain day.”’

For “and he led a riotous life’’ read ‘“‘ and he serenaded courtesans ’’.

For “‘ he fell a victim of such sins and spent a whole year in their indulgence’ read because of a disappointment in love he exiled himself for a year’.

For “‘ avraéyv read atrav”’.

For “‘ of the Apollo” read ‘‘ of Apollo ”’.

For “why he asked no questions of him,” read ‘“ why he asked himself no questions,’’.

For ‘‘ For, he said, he was determined to acquaint himself thoroughly with their lore, even if it cost him a journey.” read “For he would take the opportunity to acquaint himself thoroughly with their lore while he was on his way.”

For yeveo$a.’’ read “‘ yevéoOa ””’. e 1

Page Line







27-29 For ‘‘ you will find me of considerable value. For, if I know nothing else, I have at least been up to Babylon,” read “‘ you will find that I can serve you. I can’t say how much more, but at least I know all about Babylon,”.

7 «For “natives of Kadus ”’ read ‘‘ Kadusii ’’.

21-25 For but he kept a journal of their intercourse, and recorded in it whatever he heard or saw, and he was very well able to put together a memoir of such matters and managed this better than any- one else could do.” read “‘ but to write down a discourse or a conversation and to give impres- sions of what he heard and saw and to put to- gether a journal of such matters—that he was well able to do, and carried it out as well as the best.”

28 For “you may catch it well, if you touch a true man.” read *‘ you may be tested by the touch- stone of a true man.”

24 For “in which the king pledges us,” read ‘‘ which the king bestows on us,”’.

12 For but set himself’ read ‘‘ and proceeded ”’.

19-20 for“ in case ever he should compose read ‘‘ every time that he is declaiming ”’.

34 for made them out.” read ‘‘ seen the like.” 21 for have found set’ read “‘ use in masonry ”’. 8 for ** Amumonac”’ read ‘“‘ Amymonae ”’. 9 For everywhere.” read ** frequently.” 16-17 For ‘‘ For a little further off, of courae, there is

Athens and Thermopylae,” read For there is, of course, the oecupation of Athens and Thermo- pylae,”’.

23 For sapphire,” read lapis lazuli,’’.

27-28 Por “of an honourable and good reputation.” read seeming honourable and good to me.”’

16-18 For “held the king in singular esteem, but had made himself equally esteemed by him.” read “derived great benefit from the king, but had conferred great benefit himself.”

Page Line








For has been sung after the model of Sappho.” read ‘“‘the singing of it derives from Sapphic odes.”

For ‘‘ these arenas and race-courses are well known and held in respect by Hellas;’’ read these games are famous and held on courses in the heart of Hellas; ’’.

For “‘ ‘1 will show you to-morrow how much men envy them and what great rewards I hold them to have earned; ”’ read “* For you I wil] to-mor- row make their estate enviable and will see that they have been granted great favours; ”’

For you ought at once to utter thoughts of the clearest kind about the heaven and about the sun and moon, which you probably think you could touch from a vantage ground so close to heaven.” read you ought henceforth to publish more accurate conceptions of the heavens and the sun and moon, since you think, I suppose, that you will even lay a rod to them as you stand close to the heavens here.”’

For “and they depend for steeds on the herds of elephants;’’ read “and they are nomad riders on the herds of elephants; ”’

For “singing as they reeled about,” read “‘ singing drowsily,’’.

For who drink of a night” read who end drink- ing bouts at night ’’.

ed ~ 89 es

For améxpynv” read aroxpiv

For ‘‘ understood the affairs’? read ‘‘ knew the religious rites ”’

For ‘“‘ took to the thyrsus and introduced it in” read ‘* adopted the thyrsus and devoted himself L077"

For “‘ having declared” read “* on saying ”’


For obtained from him Dionysus ”’

for 6 vn Ad,’ 29 read ee ¢ vn Ar’,’ ase

For “‘ hardly ever uses a whip,”’ read “‘ is not always whipping, ”.

read ‘‘ gained from this


Page Line


143 148







18 12

25 15-16


For “‘ inflict and parry blows ”’ read “* hurl and avoid missiles ”’. For “‘ capture read ‘‘ occupy ””’.

After pndevt”’ insert footnote reference } and at bottom of page insert footnote ‘‘! Read pndév’.

For “‘ because they need no sharpening of any kind, and ’’ read “there is no grinding of one upon another, and they ”’.

For ‘‘sole’’ read ‘‘ foot’.

For * of his foot has many furrows in it, and not being confined by hoofs, it seems to stand on a soft, flabby foot.” read ‘‘ branches into more toes than two, and since these are not squeezed into a hoof, the elephant has a pliable sole.”

For “idle” read “‘ flighty ”’. For *‘ wicked ”’ read “‘ vicious ”’.

For “affection of animals for their young” read “affection that men feel for their young ”.

For “so that you may regard the elephant as the best tactician to be found among animals.” read ‘“so that you must regard this manceuvre as tactically excellent on the part of the brutes.”

For frrov” read $rrov”’.

For *‘ and the whole composition revealed a master- ful style of art resembling that of read and the composition was like the subject of some famous painting by”’,

For “shade and infused life into their designs, as wellas a sense of depth and relief.”’ read “shade : and, they say, here also was an appearance of real life, as well as depth and relief.”

For reinstating read restoring ”’, For rove” read x6 ye’, a e od for but, as is the case in the houses of the upper class, a few servants; and only three or four persons, who required” read but, considering

what is usual in the houses of magnates, only few

Servants, and three or four people who wished, 80 J suppose,”’,


Page Line












For “‘ for the great esteem in which he was held by read ‘‘ who had been granted great favours by ”’.

For for I do not know myself, not to mention the fact read “‘ seeming, that is, not to know myself and not to know ”.

For requiring elaborate preparation.” read ‘‘ not undeserving of serious study.”

For “like an attendant on danseuses, would throw a light somersault,” read “like one employed by dancing-girls, would be tossed lightly aloft,”’.

For “a javelin” read ‘‘ an arrow ”’.

For And another would shoot through a sling and aim at a hair or would shoot at his own son, and pick out his figure with the missiles as he stood erect against a hoarding. Such are their forms of entertainment in their banquets,” read ‘* Shooting through a ring too, or hitting a hair with an arrow, or for a man to mark the outline of his own son with arrows, as he stands in front of a board, keeps them occupied at their banquets,”’.

For drunk.” read drinking.”

For *‘ who was eating beside the king from the same dishes,” read ‘* who ate with the king, since they agreed in diet,’’.

For ‘‘Qur ancestors used to ask questions of mariners who sailed to their coast, to see whether they were pirates, so widespread did they consider that calling to be in spite of its cruelty; read ‘*In old days they would ask men who arrived by sea whether they were pirates, so common did they consider that way of living, hard though it is;’’.

For ‘“‘ That then we rely thus on the evidence of teachers, and put their philosophical aptitude to a test,” read ‘‘ Well then, that we study philosophy under direction of teachers, and that admission to philosophy is by examination among us,’’.

For ‘‘ and held the State together.” read and took control of the State.”’

Page 201



203 205




For keep” read ‘‘ gain”.

For after teaching me Greek read aftor a Greek education ”’.

Delete comma after “‘ age”’.

For “‘ wavered not.” read did not dawdle.”’

For “but this race” réad “‘ and a race that”.

For “they say that they attempted, yet never acquired any real knowledge of wisdom.” read ‘assert that they deal in wisdom, though they know nothing of value.”

For fixing” read marking ”’.


read “using ”’.

For turning

For “into” read for’’.

For confining the ocean within its bounds.” read ‘drawing the ocean into the inner sea.”

For fixed read ‘*‘ marked ”’.

For * and as” read but ”’.

After “us,” insert for’’.

For reconciled to read encountering ”’.

For éxm@prtos” read ‘‘ éxma@patos”’.

For shtubs.” read forests.”

For teeth read tusks ”’.

For * flexible,” read twisted,”.

For “and are as sharp and indestructible as those of the largest fishes.” read “‘ and have a point as unabraded as sharks’ teeth.”

For “and what is inexpedient, and dissuade and warn him off with signs.” read ‘‘ but forbid and warn him by signs from what is inexpedient.””

For are come to” read come with a”’.

For “spits stick up in the sea’? read ‘ships’ ornamental signs show sticking up.” For cowards” read bad men

* c

For pledged men in” read regaled men with ”.

6 .

286 289 29-4 297 298 299


For ‘‘ parted his cloak in the way the Thessalians do,” read *‘ differed in his cloak, that being like a Thessalian’s,”’.


For “‘ because he gave rein” read ‘“‘ for not giving rein”? and for “‘ and” read ‘“‘ but ”’.


For rpamela,” read “* rpareta,’’.

For and retire,” read ‘*‘ before him,”’.

93 .

Delete comma after “* tits Delete “* him”. For ‘‘ WAAnow” read ““WAAnow ”.

For then restriction of the number is as good as none.” read “‘then none will be thought to be really qualified.”

For “insisting on justice as a qualification for all alike.’ read “‘ preserving the same standard of justice.’ ”’

For “ru” read “ri”.

For ‘’vOpadmwy read “‘ avOpwrwv””.

Delete *“* who”.

For personality ?”’ read personality.”

fur revolve” read “‘ expand ”’.

For “‘ puairiy d€ nyotvras tH xyqv”’ read ypvatruv be Hyovvra TH yay”. For “‘ which” read ‘“ and it”’.

For full of wild animals, and it was crowded with seals; ”’ read “full of sharks, and whales gathered there in schools; ”. Delete side-note ** Seals’.

For arrogance read revelry ”’.

For “So at the risk of estranging his Ephesian converts,” read ‘‘ So, though the Ephesians had come over to him,”’’.

For ‘“‘ Aegeon ”’ read “‘ Aegaeon ”’.

For ‘‘ by way of reforming” read “‘calling the

attention of ”’.

Page Jane

379 18 3938 4-5 399 = 5-6

45 27 414 14 420 21 427 24-2

482 5 487 8 488 10 502 16 505 8 » 10-11 514 12 548 25 549 31 560 7 585 2nd col. line 10

For “the first river he had consulted; ”’ read ‘* the river of his first intimacy; ”’.

For “and won the consideration of all who now had turned their attention to” read “‘ assumed a modest aspect, as all had their attention con- centrated on”’.

For ‘he almost embraced it, out of sheer admira- tion’ read ‘‘he almost clasped it in his arms, so great was his admiration ”’.

For ‘“‘ Amphiareus ”’ read “* Amphiaraus ”’.

For “* Amod\Awviov ”’ read ** ’AmroAAwviov’’.

soo e

Delete comma after “* Kat

For “‘ to which he gave the title of his companions,” read ‘‘ which is the title he gave to his com- panions,’’.

For “‘ for the earth hath borne land and brought it forth.’ ’’ read for the sea has given birth and brought forth land.”

Delete comma after *‘ yeXotous ”’. For *‘ born ’’ read “‘ borne ”’. For “6” read ““o”’.

For éxvec”’ read * éuver’””.

3 3

For “‘ fortunes ”’ read “‘ sayings ”’.

For “impertinent like one who has carelessly repeated them.” read *‘ to take liberties with the man, who uttered them carelessly.”’

For “ra &€”’ reud “* ra S€”’.

For dueAeyx@eis 1”? read ** Sarexbeis’’ and delete note ut foot of page.

eos . For “in response to several malignant accusa- owe, ; tions read besides frequent aspersions in my lectures ”’,

Delete comma after ‘‘ Tupvois ”’.

[Index] Delete “‘ Kadus natives, or”? and for “Ca- dusii”” read “* Kadusii’’.







A’ I


Of rov Yaptov TvOayopav érawobvtes tase

A \

er avTa daciv: ws “Iwv ev otra eln, yévacro


ev Tpoia aoté KidopBos, avaBioin te atroPavev,

a \ \

aroOdvot 56, ws @dal ‘Opnpov, éoOAra Te THY aro , a \ , ,

Ovncediwv tapaitoito Kal Kabapevor Bpacews, ¢ b / \ , \ \ e /

oToon eurruvywov, Kat Ovaoias: wn yap aiparrew

Tous Bwpovs, GAXA H MEALTTODTA Kal 6 ALBavwros

\ 9 a A fa A a Kal TO épupvioat, hovray Taira tots Oeois rapa 9 ‘N 4 , e 3 la

Tov avdpos TovTOU, yiyvacKe Te, WS abmalowTo

Ta ToladtTa ot Oeol wadXrov 4 Tas éxaTouBas Kal

THY paxatpay éri Tod Kavov. Evveivar yap 8)

Tois Qeots Kal pavOdvew map avtayv, dan Tots

/ avOpwmrois xaipover Kal ban ayOovtas, Tept re gucews exeifev réyew: Tovs perv yap addous

, a / Texpatper0as Tob Getov Kai SdEas dvopolous adA-



Tue votaries of Pythagoras of Samos have this onap. story to tell of him, that he was not an Ionian at all, ! but that, once on a time in Troy, he had been potter ‘a Kuphorbus, and that he had come to life after death, Pythagoras but had died as the songs of Homer relate. And they say that he declined to wear apparel made from dead animal products and, to guard his purity, abstained from all flesh diet, whether of animals or of sacrificial victims. For that he would not stain the altars with blood; nay, rather the honey-cake and frankincense and the hymn of praise, these they say wereethe offerings made to the Gods by this man, who realised that they welcome such tribute more than they do the hecatombs and the knife laid upon the sacrificial basket. For they say that he had of a certainty social intercourse with the gods, and learnt from them the conditions under which they take pleasure in men or are disgusted, and on this intercourse he based his account of nature. For he said that, whereas other men only make con- jectures about the divinity and make guesses that


s 3



CAP. Nats rept adrod Sokdfev, éavt@ S€ Tov re ‘Arrow Hee OpmoroyouvTa, @s auTos ein, Evveivar be Kat uh Gporoyoovtas THY “AOnvay Kal tas Movoas xai Oeovds étépovs, oY TA €ldn Kal TA dvomaTta obTTw Tous avOpwtrous yiyvooKev. Kal 6 TL aTopHvatto 6 TlvOaydpas, vopov TodTo of optdyTal HyouvTo Kal ériwy avtov ws €« Atos HKovTa, Kal 1 otmmn imép tod Ociov ofiow éennoxetro:’ rordra yap Oeid Te Kal ATOPPNTA HKOVOY, WY KPaTEly YaXerT ov Av yn Tp@Tov pabovaw, OTL Kat TO GLWTaY NOYOS. Kal pny cal Tov “Axpayavrivoy ‘Eyredoxréa Ba- Sicat hact thy copiay TavTnv. TO yap

Naiper, eyo & vupuv Oeds apBporos, ovKére Oynros

\ Kat

78n yap ToT yw yevounv KOPN TE KOpoOS TE

\ ¢ 9 b] , A A / / kat o ev O)Xvupria Bods, Ov RA€yeTat Téppa ~ / le) Tmonoapevos Bicat, Ta Wu@aydpou étra.vodvtos y \ / 4 \ \ II a) f ein av. Kat TELW ETEPA Tept THY TOV I] UvBayopoU / fal TpoTov dirocodyncavtwy iatopodaty, WY ov Tpoc- 4 A ¢ 4 f nKel pe vUv amTec as oTrevoovTa ert Tov NOyoD, SV / / atroTenéoat povbéunv.

1 éwnoxeity Richards: érhoxnro Kayser.


contradict one another concerning it,—in his own cHap. case he said that Apollo had come to him acknow- ! ledging that he was the god in person; and that Athene and the Muses and other gods, whose forms and names men did not yet know, had also con- sorted with him though without making such acknowledgment. And the followers of Pythagoras accepted as law any decisions communicated by him, and honoured him as an emissary from Zeus, but imposed, out of respect for their divine character,

a ritual] silence on themselves. For many were the divine and ineffable secrets which they had heard, but which it was difficult for any to keep who had not previously learnt that silence also is a mode of speech. Moreover they declare that Empedocles of Acragas had trodden this way of wisdom when he wrote the line

Rejoice ye, for I am unto you an immortal God, and no more mortal,”

And this also: " For erewhile, I already became both girl and boy.”

And the story that he made at Olympia a bull out of pastry and sacrificed it to the god also shews that he approved of the sentiments of Pythagoras. And there is much else that they tell of those sages who observe the rule of Pythagoras; but 1 must not now enter upon such points, but hurry on to the work which I have set myself to complete.




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For quite akin to theirs was the ideal which cHap. Apollonius pursued, and more divinely than Pythagoras he wooed wisdom and soared above nae tyrants; and he lived in times not long gone by wizard nor again quite of our own day, yet men know him not because of the true wisdom, which he practised as a sage and sanely ; but one man singles out one feature for praise in him and another another ; while some, because he had interviews with the wizards of Babylon and with the Brahmans of India, and with the nude ascetics of Egypt, put him down as a wizard, and spread the calumny that he was a sage of an illegitimate kind, judging of him ill. For Empedocles and Pythagoras himself and Democritus consorted with wizards and uttered many super- natural truths, yet never stooped to the black art; and Plato went to Egypt and mingled with his own discourses much of what he heard from the prophets and priests there; and though, like a painter, he laid his own colours on to their rough sketches, yet he never passed for a wizard, although envied above all mankind for his wisdom. For the circumstance that Apollonius foresaw and foreknew so many things does not in the least justify us in imputing to him this kind of wisdom ; we might as well accuse Socrates of the same, because, thanks to his familiar spirit, he knew things beforehand, and we might also accuse Anaxagoras because of the many things which he foretold. And indeed who does not know the story of how Anaxagoras at Olympia in a season of intense drought came forward wearing a fleece into the stadium, by way of predicting rain, and of how he

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foretold the fall of the house,—-and truly, for it ia did fall; and of how he said that day would be

turned into night, and stones would be discharged

from heaven round Aegospotami, and of how his predictions were fulfilled? Now these feats are set

down to the wisdom of Anaxagoras by the same

people who would rob Apollonius of the credit of

having predicted things by dint of wisdom, and say

that he